Düsseldorf, 1.11.2005
SENT AGAIN, 16.1.2006
Dear Prof. Nakamura,
I am sorry for my late response, but I had a series of business trips, and from the beginning of July 
until now I stayed less than one month in Düsseldorf.  However, I managed to return to the normal 
life here at least for now.
First of all I will give you some information about blueberries.  In the common language, BILBERRY 
means “wild blueberry,” which has existed for long time in Europe.   The Swedish botanist, LINNE, 
gave the academic name, VACCINIUM MIRTILLUS L.
Blueberries contain a group of Antocyanosides. The well known Bilberries effect on eyes, namely 
the ability of  someone who has eaten Bilberries to see in darkness, is due to the physiological effect 
of some Antocyanosides.  This physiological mechanism has been cleared, indeed, and one can find 
a lot of literatures on this subject. I once had more than 30 cm thick bundle of literatures on this 
subject, which I do not posses any longer. 
This physiological effect of high perception of the eyes in darkness can be obtained only with some 
specific types of Antocyanosides.  Vaccinium Mirtillus L satisfies this condition. Other types of 
blueberries (there are about 25-30 subspecies in the world) have little or no physiological effects. A 
typical example is American blueberry, although American blueberry (cultivated) is twice as large as 
the wild blueberry in size, and much more tasteful than the wild blueberry.  When you cut an 
American blueberry, you can see the inner part is whitish, while the wild blueberry is dark blue/violet 
inside. The American blueberry contains antocyanosides but they have no physiological effects on 
human eyes.
If you are interested in getting the extracts of Vaccinium Mirtillus L, you can find more than 20 
pharmaceutical products (OTC) in Italy. In Italy, students preparing for the examination until late at 
night use this extract very practically.  They say they can read better even after a long night of 
reading. The biggest makers of bilberry extract are the three pharmaceutical companies including 
INDENA S.P.A. in Milan.
I could give you some information about extraction of essential oils and active substances from 
plants, but it is complicated because each case is different. One needs a small room as Lab for the 
chemical work, and you need extractors such as Soxleh, or distillation column in glass, etc.  If you 
choose a wrong condition of extraction or distillation, you get such a quality of essential oil or extract 
that the product has no effect, or the essential oil does not smell as you expect.
I am now studying the history of Mediaeval age, to which I wish to devote after retirement.  I am 
also studying Latin and paleography (ancient calligraphy) as an important means for my study.    
I shall write to you again.
Best Regards,